1. Oosterlinck W, Solsona E, van der Meijden AP et al. EAU guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma. Eur Urol 2004; 46(2): 147–154.
2. Phillips B, Ball C, Sackett D et al. Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine – levels of evidence (March 2009). Centre for Evidence Based Medicine Web site. http://www.cebm.net/index.aspx?o=1025 Updated March 2009.
3. Munoz JJ, Ellison LM. Upper tract urothelial neoplasms: incidence and survival during the last 2 decades. J Urol 2000; 164(5): 1523–1525.
4. Ploeg M, Aben KK, Kiemeney LA. The present and future burden of urinary bladder cancer in the world. World J Urol 2009; 27(3): 289–293.
5. Babjuk M, Oosterlinck W, Sylvester R et al. EAU guidelines on non-muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Eur Urol 2008; 54(2): 303–314.
6. Jemal A, Siegel R, Ward E et al. Cancer statistics, 2009. CA Cancer J Clin 2009; 59(4): 225–249.
7. Hall MC, Womack S, Sagalowsky AI et al. Prognostic factors, recurrence, and survival in transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract: a 30-year experience in 252 patients. Urology 1998; 52(4): 594–601.
8. Margulis V, Shariat SF, Matin SF et al. Outcomes of radical nephroureterectomy: a series from the Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma Collaboration. Cancer 2009; 115(6): 1224–1233.
9. Olgac S, Mazumdar M, Dalbagni G et al. Urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis: a clinicopathologic study of 130 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 2004; 28(12): 1545–1552.
10. Azemar MD, Comperat E, Richard F et al. Bladder recurrence after surgery for upper urinary tract urothelial cell carcinoma: Frequency, risk factors, and surveillance. Urol Oncol 2009 Sep. (Epub ahead of print)
11. Raman JD, Ng CK, Scherr DS et al. Impact of Tumor Location on Prognosis for Patients with Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma Managed by Radical Nephroureterectomy. Eur Urol 2010; 57(6): 1072–1093.
12. Li WM, Shen JT, Li CC et al. Oncologic Outcomes Following Three Different Approaches to the Distal Ureter and Bladder Cuff in Nephroureterectomy for Primary Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Carcinoma. Eur Urol 2010; 57(6): 963–969.
13. Novara G, De Marco V, Dalpiaz O et al. Independent predictors of contralateral metachronous upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma after nephroureterectomy: multi-institutional dataset from three European centers. Int J Urol 2009; 16(2): 187–191.
14. Rouprêt M, Catto J, Coulet F et al. Microsatellite instability as indicator of MSH2 gene mutation in patients with upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma. J Med Genet 2004; 41(7): e91.
15. Acher P, Kiela G, Thomas K et al. Towards a rational strategy for the surveillance of patients with Lynch syndrome (hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer) for upper tract transitional cell carcinoma. BJU Int 2010; 106(3): 300–302.
16. Rouprêt M, Yates DR, Comperat E et al. Upper urinary tract urothelial cell carcinomas and other urological malignancies involved in the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (lynch syndrome) tumor spectrum. Eur Urol 2008; 54(6): 1226–1236.
17. Colin P, Koenig P, Ouzzane A et al. Environmental factors involved in carcinogenesis of urothelial cell carcinomas of the upper urinary tract. BJU Int 2009; 104(10): 1436–1440.
18. Pommer W, Bronder E, Klimpel A et al. Urothelial cancer at different tumour sites: role of smoking and habitual intake of analgesics and laxatives. Results of the Berlin Urothelial Cancer Study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1999; 14(12): 2892–2897.
19. Shinka T, Miyai M, Sawada Y et al. Factors affecting the occurrence of urothelial tumors in dye workers exposed to aromatic amines. Int J Urol 1995; 2(4): 243–248.
20. Markovic N, Ignjatovic I, Cukuranovic R et al. Decreasing incidence of urothelial cancer in a Balkan endemic nephropathy region in Serbia. A surgery based study from 1969 to 1998. Pathol Biol (Paris) 2005; 53(1): 26–29.
21. Grollman AP, Shibutani S, Moriya M et al. Aristolochic acid and the etiology of endemic (Balkan) nephropathy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2007; 104(29): 129–134.
22. Arlt VM, Stiborova M, vom Brocke J, et al. Aristolochic acid mutagenesis: molecular clues to the aetiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy-associated urothelial cancer. Carcinogenesis 2007; 28(11): 2253–2261.
23. Laing C, Hamour S, Sheaff M et al. Chinese herbal uropathy and nephropathy. Lancet 2006; 368(9532): 338.
24. Lord GM, Cook T, Arlt VM et al. Urothelial malignant disease and Chinese herbal nephropathy. Lancet 2001; 358(9292): 1515–1516.
25. Tan LB, Chen KT, Guo HR. Clinical and epidemiological features of patients with genitourinary tract tumour in a blackfoot disease endemic area of Taiwan. BJU Int 2008; 102(1): 48–54.
26. Rouprêt M, Cancel-Tassin G, Comperat E et al. Phenol sulfotransferase SULT1A1*2 allele and enhanced risk of upper urinary tract urothelial cell carcinoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007; 16(11): 2500–2503.
27. Perez-Montiel D, Wakely PE, Hes O et al. High-grade urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis: clinicopathologic study of 108 cases with emphasis on unusual morphologic variants. Mod Pathol 2006; 19(4): 494–503.
28. Stewart GD, Bariol SV, Grigor KM et al. A comparison of the pathology of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder and upper urinary tract. BJU Int 2005; 95(6): 791–793.
29. Orsola A, Trias I, Raventos CX et al. Renal collecting (Bellini) duct carcinoma displays similar characteristics to upper tract urothelial cell carcinoma. Urology 2005; 65(1): 49–54.
30. Busby JE, Brown GA, Tamboli P et al. Upper urinary tract tumors with nontransitional histology: a single-center experience. Urology 2006; 67(3): 518–523.
31. Sobin L, Gospodarowicz M, Wittekind C. TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours. Urological Tumours. Renal Pelvis and Ureter. 7th revised edition, Wiley-Blackwell, uicc 2009:258–261.
32. Lopez-Beltran A, Bassi P, Pavone-Macaluso M et al. Handling and pathology reporting of specimens with carcinoma of the urinary bladder, ureter, and renal pelvis. Eur Urol 2004; 45(3): 257–266.
33. Sauter G, Algaba F, Amin M et al. Tumors of the urinary system in: World Health Organisation classification of tumors. Pathology and genetics of tumors of the urinary system and male genital organs. Lyon, France: IARC Press; 2004. 110–123.
34. Raman JD, Shariat SF, Karakiewicz PI et al. Does preoperative symptom classification impact prognosis in patients with clinically localized upper-tract urothelial carcinoma managed by radical nephroureterectomy? Urol Oncol 2010 Jan. (Epub ahead of print)
35. Dillman JR, Caoili EM, Cohan RH et al. Detection of upper tract urothelial neoplasms: sensitivity of axial, coronal reformatted, and curved-planar reformatted image-types utilizing 16-row multi-detector CT urography. Abdom Imaging 2008; 33(6): 707–716.
36. Van Der Molen AJ, Cowan NC, Mueller-Lisse UG et al. CT urography: definition, indications and techniques. A guideline for clinical practice. Eur Radiol 2008; 18(1): 4–17.
37. Wang LJ, Wong YC, Chuang CK et al. Diagnostic accuracy of transitional cell carcinoma on multidetector computerized tomography urography in patients with gross hematuria. J Urol 2009; 181(2): 524–531.
38. Wang LJ, Wong YC, Huang CC et al. Multidetector computerized tomography urography is more accurate than excretory urography for diagnosing transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract in adults with hematuria. J Urol 2010; 183(1): 48–55.
39. Ng CK, Shariat SF, Lucas SM, et al. Does the presence of hydronephrosis on preoperative axial CT imaging predict worse outcomes for patients undergoing nephroureterectomy for upper-tract urothelial carcinoma? Urol Oncol 2011; 29(1): 27–32.
40. Takahashi N, Glockner JF, Hartman RP, et al. Gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance urography for upper urinary tract malignancy. J Urol. 2010; 183(4): 1330–1365.
41. Takahashi N, Kawashima A, Glockner JF et al. Small (<2-cm) upper-tract urothelial carcinoma: evaluation with gadolinium-enhanced three-dimensional spoiled gradient-recalled echo MR urography. Radiology 2008; 247(2): 451–457.
42. Brien JC, Shariat SF, Herman MP et al. Preoperative hydronephrosis, ureteroscopic biopsy grade and urinary cytology can improve prediction of advanced upper tract urothelial carcinoma. J Urol 2010; 184(1): 69–73.
43. Luo B, Li W, Deng CH et al. Utility of fluorescence in situ hybridization in the diagnosis of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma. Cancer Genet Cytogenet 2009; 189(2): 93–97.
44. Mian C, Mazzoleni G, Vikoler S et al. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridisation in the Diagnosis of Upper Urinary Tract Tumours. Eur Urol 2010; 58(2): 288–292.
45. Nieder AM, Soloway MS, Herr HW. Should we abandon the FISH test? Eur Urol 2007; 51(6): 1469–1471.
46. Johannes JR, Nelson E, Bibbo M et al. Voided urine fluorescence in situ hybridization testing for upper tract urothelial carcinoma surveillance. J Urol 2010; 184(3): 879–882.
47. Chen AA, Grasso M. Is there a role for FISH in the management and surveillance of patients with upper tract transitional-cell carcinoma? J Endourol 2008; 22(6): 1371–1374.
48. Lee KS, Zeikus E, DeWolf WC et al. MR urography versus retrograde pyelography/ureteroscopy for the exclusion of upper urinary tract malignancy. Clin Radiol 2010; 65(3): 185–192.
49. Ishikawa S, Abe T, Shinohara N et al. Impact of diagnostic ureteroscopy on intravesical recurrence and survival in patients with urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract. J Urol 2010; 184(3): 883–887.
50. Tavora F, Fajardo DA, Lee TK et al. Small endoscopic biopsies of the ureter and renal pelvis: pathologic pitfalls. Am J Surg Pathol 2009; 33(10): 1540–1546.
51. Abouassaly R, Alibhai SM, Shah N et al. Troubling Outcomes From Population-level Analysis of Surgery for Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma. Urology 2010; 76(4): 895–901.
52. Jeldres C, Sun M, Isbarn H et al. A population-based assessment of perioperative mortality after nephroureterectomy for upper-tract urothelial carcinoma. Urology 2010; 75(2): 315–320.
53. Langner C, Hutterer G, Chromecki T et al. pT classification, grade, and vascular invasion as prognostic indicators in urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract. Mod Pathol 2006; 19(2): 272–279.
54. Lehmann J, Suttmann H, Kovac I et al. Transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter: prognostic factors influencing progression and survival. Eur Urol 2007; 51(5): 1281–1288.
55. Li CC, Chang TH, Wu WJ et al. Significant predictive factors for prognosis of primary upper urinary tract cancer after radical nephroureterectomy in Taiwanese patients. Eur Urol 2008; 54(5): 1127–1134.
56. Fernandez MI, Shariat SF, Margulis V et al. Evidence-based sex-related outcomes after radical nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma: results of large multicenter study. Urology 2009; 73(1): 142–146.
57. Lughezzani G, Sun M, Perrotte P et al. Gender-related differences in patients with stage I to III upper tract urothelial carcinoma: results from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Urology 2010; 75(2): 321–327.
58. Shariat SF, Favaretto RL, Gupta A et al. Gender differences in radical nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma. World J Urol 2010. (Epub ahead of print)
59. Shariat SF, Godoy G, Lotan Y et al. Advanced patient age is associated with inferior cancer-specific survival after radical nephroureterectomy. BJU Int 2010; 105(12): 1672–1677.
60. Favaretto RL, Shariat SF, Chade DC et al. The Effect of Tumor Location on Prognosis in Patients Treated with Radical Nephroureterectomy at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Eur Urol 2010; 58(4): 574–580.
61. Isbarn H, Jeldres C, Shariat SF et al. Location of the primary tumor is not an independent predictor of cancer specific mortality in patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma. J Urol 2009; 182(5): 2177–2181.
62. van der Poel HG, Antonini N, van Tinteren H et al. Upper urinary tract cancer: location is correlated with prognosis. Eur Urol 2005; 48(3): 438–444.
63. Margulis V, Youssef RF, Karakiewicz PI et al. Preoperative multivariable prognostic model for prediction of nonorgan confined urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract. J Urol 2010; 184(2): 453–458.
64. Kikuchi E, Margulis V, Karakiewicz PI et al. Lymphovascular invasion predicts clinical outcomes in patients with node-negative upper tract urothelial carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 2009; 27(4): 612–618.
65. Kim DS, Lee YH, Cho KS et al. Lymphovascular invasion and pT stage are prognostic factors in patients treated with radical nephroureterectomy for localized upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma. Urology 2010; 75(2): 328–332.
66. Novara G, Matsumoto K, Kassouf W et al. Prognostic Role of Lymphovascular Invasion in Patients with Urothelial Carcinoma of the Upper Urinary Tract: An International Validation Study. Eur Urol 2010; 57(6): 1064–1071.
67. Zigeuner R, Shariat SF, Margulis V et al. Tumour Necrosis Is an Indicator of Aggressive Biology in Patients with Urothelial Carcinoma of the Upper Urinary Tract. Eur Urol 2010; 57(4): 575–581.
68. Seitz C, Gupta A, Shariat SF et al. Association of tumor necrosis with pathological features and clinical outcome in 754 patients undergoing radical nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma: an international validation study. J Urol. 2010; 184(5): 1895–1900.
69. Remzi M, Haitel A, Margulis V et al. Tumour architecture is an independent predictor of outcomes after nephroureterectomy: a multi-institutional analysis of 1363 patients. BJU Int 2009; 103(3): 307–311.
70. Wheat JC, Weizer AZ, Wolf JS Jr. et al. Concomitant carcinoma in situ is a feature of aggressive disease in patients with organ confined urothelial carcinoma following radical nephroureterectomy. Urol Oncol 2010. (Epub ahead of print)
71. Pieras E, Frontera G, Ruiz X et al. Concomitant carcinoma in situ and tumour size are prognostic factors for bladder recurrence after nephroureterectomy for upper tract transitional cell carcinoma. BJU Int. 2010; 106(9): 1319–1323.
72. Rouprêt M, Fromont G, Azzouzi AR et al. Microsatellite instability as predictor of survival in patients with invasive upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma. Urology 2005; 65(6): 1233–1237.
73. Eltz S, Comperat E, Cussenot O et al. Molecular and histological markers in urothelial carcinomas of the upper urinary tract. BJU Int 2008; 102(5): 532–535.
74. Lughezzani G, Sun M, Perrotte P et al. Should Bladder Cuff Excision Remain the Standard of Care at Nephroureterectomy in Patients with Urothelial Carcinoma of the Renal Pelvis? A Population-based Study. Eur Urol 2010; 57(6): 956–962.
75. Phé V, Cussenot O, Bitker MO et al. Does the surgical technique for management of the distal ureter influence the outcome after nephroureterectomy? BJU Int 2010.
76. Zigeuner R, Pummer K. Urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract: surgical approach and prognostic factors. Eur Urol 2008; 53(4): 720–731.
77. Saika T, Nishiguchi J, Tsushima T et al. Comparative study of ureteral stripping versus open ureterectomy for nephroureterectomy in patients with transitional carcinoma of the renal pelvis. Urology 2004; 63(5): 848–852.
78. Palou J, Caparros J, Orsola A et al. Transurethral resection of the intramural ureter as the first step of nephroureterectomy. J Urol 1995; 154(1): 43–44.
79. Laguna MP, de la Rosette JJ. The endoscopic approach to the distal ureter in nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract tumor. J Urol 2001; 166(6): 2017–2022.
80. Waldert M, Karakiewicz PI, Raman JD et al. A delay in radical nephroureterectomy can lead to upstaging. BJU Int 2010; 105(6): 812–817.
81. Lughezzani G, Jeldres C, Isbarn H et al. A critical appraisal of the value of lymph node dissection at nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma. Urology 2010; 75(1): 118–124.
82. Roscigno M, Shariat SF, Margulis V et al. Impact of lymph node dissection on cancer specific survival in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma treated with radical nephroureterectomy. J Urol 2009; 181(6): 2482–2489.
83. Roscigno M, Shariat SF, Margulis V et al. The extent of lymphadenectomy seems to be associated with better survival in patients with nonmetastatic upper-tract urothelial carcinoma: how many lymph nodes should be removed? Eur Urol 2009; 56(3): 512–518.
84. Berger A, Haber GP, Kamoi K et al. Laparoscopic radical nephroureterectomy for upper tract transitional cell carcinoma: oncological outcomes at 7 years. J Urol 2008; 180(3): 849–854.
85. Rassweiler JJ, Schulze M, Marrero R et al. Laparoscopic nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma: is it better than open surgery? Eur Urol 2004; 46(6): 690–697.
86. Ong AM, Bhayani SB, Pavlovich CP. Trocar site recurrence after laparoscopic nephroureterectomy. J Urol 2003; 170 (4 Pt 1): 1301.
87. Rouprêt M, Smyth G, Irani J et al. Oncological risk of laparoscopic surgery in urothelial carcinomas. World J Urol 2009; 27(1): 81–88.
88. Capitanio U, Shariat SF, Isbarn H et al. Comparison of oncologic outcomes for open and laparoscopic nephroureterectomy: a multi-institutional analysis of 1249 cases. Eur Urol 2009; 56(1): 1–9.
89. Favaretto RL, Shariat SF, Chade DC et al. Comparison Between Laparoscopic and Open Radical Nephroureterectomy in a Contemporary Group of Patients: Are Recurrence and Disease-Specific Survival Associated with Surgical Technique? Eur Urol 2010. (Epub ahead of print)
90. Kamihira O, Hattori R, Yamaguchi A, et al. Laparoscopic radical nephroureterectomy: a multicenter analysis in Japan. Eur Urol 2009; 55(6): 1397–1407.
91. Rouprêt M, Hupertan V, Sanderson KM et al. Oncologic control after open or laparoscopic nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma: a single center experience. Urology 2007; 69(4): 656–661.
92. Simone G, Papalia R, Guaglianone S et al. Laparoscopic versus open nephroureterectomy: perioperative and oncologic outcomes from a randomised prospective study. Eur Urol 2009; 56(3): 520–526.
93. Chen GL, Bagley DH. Ureteroscopic management of upper tract transitional cell carcinoma in patients with normal contralateral kidneys. J Urol 2000; 164(4): 1173–1176.
94. Gadzinski AJ, Roberts WW, Faerber GJ et al. Long-term outcomes of nephroureterectomy versus endoscopic management for upper tract urothelial carcinoma. J Urol 2010; 183(6): 2148–2153.
95. Brown GA, Busby JE, Wood CG et al. Nephroureterectomy for treating upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma: Time to change the treatment paradigm? BJU Int 2006; 98(6): 1176–1180.
96. Bagley DH, Grasso M 3rd. Ureteroscopic laser treatment of upper urinary tract neoplasms. World J Urol 2010; 28(2): 143–149.
97. Rouprêt M, Hupertan V, Traxer O et al. Comparison of open nephroureterectomy and ureteroscopic and percutaneous management of upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma. Urology 2006; 67(6): 1181–1187.
98. Cornu JN, Rouprêt M, Carpentier X et al. Oncologic control obtained after exclusive flexible ureteroscopic management of upper urinary tract urothelial cell carcinoma. World J Urol 2010; 28(2): 151–156.
99. Rouprêt M, Wallerand H, Traxer O et al. Checkup and management of upper urinary tract tumours in 2010: An update from the committee of cancer from the French National Association of Urology. Prog Urol 2010; 20(4): 260–2671.
100. Jeldres C, Lughezzani G, Sun M et al. Segmental ureterectomy can safely be performed in patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter. J Urol 2010; 183(4): 1324–1329.
101. Thompson RH, Krambeck AE, Lohse CM et al. Elective endoscopic management of transitional cell carcinoma first diagnosed in the upper urinary tract. BJU Int 2008; 102(9): 1107–1110.
102. Zungri E, Chechile G, Algaba F et al. Treatment of transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter: is the controversy justified? Eur Urol 1990; 17(4): 276–280.
103. Palou J, Piovesan LF, Huguet J et al. Percutaneous nephroscopic management of upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma: recurrence and long-term followup. J Urol 2004; 172(1): 66–69.
104. Rouprêt M, Traxer O, Tligui M et al. Upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma: recurrence rate after percutaneous endoscopic resection. Eur Urol 2007; 51: 709–713.
105. Irie A, Iwamura M, Kadowaki K et al. Intravesical instillation of bacille Calmette-Guerin for carcinoma in situ of the urothelium involving the upper urinary tract using vesicoureteral reflux created by a double-pigtail catheter. Urology 2002; 59(1): 53–57.
106. Nonomura N, Ono Y, Nozawa M et al. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin perfusion therapy for the treatment of transitional cell carcinoma in situ of the upper urinary tract. Eur Urol 2000; 38(6): 701–704.
107. Thalmann GN, Markwalder R, Walter B et al. Long-term experience with bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy of upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma in patients not eligible for surgery. J Urol 2002; 168 (4 Pt 1): 1381–1385.
108. Audenet F, Yates D, Cussenot O et al. The role of chemotherapy in the treatment of urothelial cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract (UUT-UCC). Urol Oncol 2010. (Epub ahead of print)
109. Hellenthal NJ, Shariat SF, Margulis V et al. Adjuvant chemotherapy for high risk upper tract urothelial carcinoma: results from the Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma Collaboration. J Urol 2009; 182(3): 900–906.
110. Kaag MG, O'Malley RL, O'Malley P et al. Changes in Renal Function Following Nephroureterectomy May Affect the Use of Perioperative Chemotherapy. Eur Urol 2010; 58(4): 581–587.
111. Lane BR, Smith AK, Larson BT et al. Chronic kidney disease after nephroureterectomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma and implications for the administration of perioperative chemotherapy. Cancer 2010; 116(12): 2967–2973.
112. Matin SF, Margulis V, Kamat A et al. Incidence of downstaging and complete remission after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for high-risk upper tract transitional cell carcinoma. Cancer 2010; 116(13): 3127–3134.
113. Hall MC, Womack JS, Roehrborn CG et al. Advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract: patterns of failure, survival and impact of postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy. J Urol 1998; 160 (3 Pt 1): 703–706.
114. Czito B, Zietman A, Kaufman D et al. Adjuvant radiotherapy with and without concurrent chemotherapy for locally advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis and ureter. J Urol 2004; 172 (4 Pt 1): 1271–1275.
115. Raman JD, Ng CK, Boorjian SA et al. Bladder cancer after managing upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma: predictive factors and pathology. BJU Int 2005; 96(7): 1031–1035.
116. Terakawa T, Miyake H, Muramaki M et al. Risk factors for intravesical recurrence after surgical management of transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract. Urology 2008; 71(1): 123–127.
117. Chen GL, El-Gabry EA, Bagley DH. Surveillance of upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma: the role of ureteroscopy, retrograde pyelography, cytology and urinalysis. J Urol 2000; 164(6): 1901–1904.
118. Daneshmand S, Quek ML, Huffman JL. Endoscopic management of upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma: long-term experience. Cancer 2003; 98(1): 55–60.